An Overview of Bulimia Nervosa Causes

A review of bulimia nervosa will state that at present, there is no single specific factor pinpointed as its cause. The general opinion seems to be that a combination of social, psychological, and physical factors contributes to people falling prey to this disease. A lethal mix of family history, dietary habits, aesthetic standards and certain personality traits may set the stage for developing the disorder. Stressful events such as divorce, the loss of a loved one, sickness, or even moving from one place to another may also trigger the onset of bulimia.

Social and Environmental Factors Presented as Bulimia Nervosa Causes

There is no denying that from the beginning, the sufferer experiences a critical dissatisfaction with his or her appearance. In particular, he or she sees his or her body as overweight regardless of whether this is true or not. Some bulimics are actually within the normal weight range when they start the binge and purge cycle.bulimia nervosa causes

As far back as the early 1990’s research has been done on the social aspect of bulimia causes. These studies do in part support the concept that sufferers from bulimia are negatively impacted by a desire to conform to weight standards promoted through media. Because there is a great discrepancy between the average weight and height of ordinary people as against the weight and height of models used on television and in print media, many fall prey to the nearly impossible challenge of obtaining what is perceived to be the ideal. Still, it would be too simplistic to say that media’s promotion of the thin body is the deciding dynamic in triggering bulimia.

Another socially generated factor that affects the development of the disorder is performance related pressure in sports and related fields. Wrestlers, runners, and gymnasts are particularly vulnerable because keeping body weight low is important for good performance. In addition, restrictions in eating are often a part of their training regimens. All these combined can give rise to the binge and purge cycle that bulimics undergo.

Family attitudes can play a major role in triggering the onset of bulimia. There is a greater chance that members will develop bulimia where the family environment displays great concern over physical appearance and where there is a push to diet.

Biological and Physical Factors Recognized as Bulimia Nervosa Causes

It is possible that people are born with an inherited predisposition towards developing bulimia particularly where addiction is in the genes. Some resources claim that the disorder may run in families with female members being more prone to the disorder.

Studies are being done to verify whether eating disorders, including bulimia, are tied to abnormalities in neurotransmitters in the brain. One such neurotransmitter would be serotonin. Abnormal neuroendocrine regulation has also been observed in people with bulimia. Pertinent questions that will hopefully be answered by further research is does bulimia cause these abnormalities or do these abnormalities cause bulimia.

Psychological Issues

It has been discovered that people suffering from bulimia usually have emotional and psychological issues contributing to and concurrent with the disorder. Some of these issues or problems are anger management, low self-esteem, anxiety, depression, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Again, there are valid questions as to whether these psychological issues are the causes or the results of bulimia.

Populations at Risk

The most practical value of information about bulimia nervosa causes is that this can be an aid to predicting who is at risk. So far, studies have shown that most bulimia sufferers are women; that the onset of the disease has been commonly observed during the late teens or early adulthood and that there is greater risk for people who have an affected relative within the first degree of consanguinity.

People with psychological and emotional problems are also more prone to the disorder. The same risk is true for people who are living with the demand to be thin due to peer pressure or professional standards.

With this information, it is possible for teachers, friends, and families to be aware that risk factors exist. They can take care so that people around them do not succumb to this deadly disorder.

A Hard Look at Signs of Bulimia

Bulimia is a mental disorder, which manifests in the distortion of body image. The bulimic person will view himself or herself as grossly overweight even if empirical evidence shows otherwise. He or she will be obsessed with losing weight and yet will engage in overeating. This will be followed by feelings of guilt, which then lead the bulimic person to induce vomiting.

The bulimic person is unable to resist bingeing and to compensate for this he or she will go into periods of fasting and the use of laxatives and diuretics. The most common form of compensatory action for overeating is self-induced vomiting and among the signs of bulimia.

Who is Vulnerable?

Anyone, regardless of age, sex or race can suffer from this disorder. Reported cases seem to have risen in the past few years and the demographic profile of the most vulnerable population may be undergoing a change even as you read. At present, it is known that more than 85% of people who have it are female. Of this population, more than 60% register weights near what nutrition tables would define as normal. Bulimic persons usually start the binging and dieting/purging cycle when they are teenagers. At present, primarily affected are Caucasians living in societies where diets are a constant fad and standards of beauty are based on slim models’ figures. This data however, seems to be undergoing a change just as it has been noted that there is an increase in the number of males who can be classified as bulimic.

Watching Out for Signs of Bulimia

The first warning signs of bulimia may be a noticeable binging on food, especially junk food. This binging will usually be followed by a trip to the bathroom during which the person will induce vomiting. Some will not even be able to wait for the meal to end but will purge during a meal. Some may not even have indulged in binging but may have been eating a normal quantity of regular food. For the bulimic, even this must be expelled.

Another sign that a person may be bulimic is if, in between periods of exhibiting a hearty appetite, the person refuses to eat or merely pushes his or her food around the plate to give the appearance of having eaten. This, compounded by obsessive exercising, may indicate that the person is going through a bulimic cycle.

Other warning signs usually come later and will usually mean that the person has been bulimic for a considerable amount of time. These will include discoloration of the teeth caused by stomach acid brought up to the mouth during vomiting. Some bulimic persons will begin to have dry, brittle hair, which could also thin out.

Watch out for sudden weight loss because this could mean that extreme purging is taking place, leaving the body with very little nutrients. A bulimic person may also have shadows under his or her eyes and hollow cheeks.

These physical signs can be accompanied by behavioral manifestations as well. A loss of interest in the person’s usual activities, the habitual wearing of loose coupled by a refusal to buy new ones, irritability and mood swings – all of these are warning signs that a person may be suffering from bulimia.

The Treatment

Psychological counseling and sometimes medication are necessary treatment components. Usually, there is therapy to help bulimic persons change both their thinking and their behavior so that they are able to eat healthily, stop obsessing about body weight, understand why they binge, and purge and what sets them off on this destructive cycle.

The professional counseling and anti-depressants, if prescribed will often lessen the binging and the purging. However, the greater challenge is for the affected person to arrive at a healthier body image with parameters unburdened by images of reed thin models held up to be everyone’s ideal.

If you have a friend or a family member who may be suffering from or showing signs of bulimia, remember that this is not a condition that can be solved by scolding, discipline, or advice. Help from experts is necessary and along with this, the firm and loving support of family and friends. The good news is that people do recover from this disorder and they go on to live long normal lives.

Andrew Flintoff reveals his struggles with depression and eating disorder!

… Calluses on the back of the hands and knuckles, discoloration or staining of teeth, mouth ulcers from self-induced vomiting. Read more about bulimia nervosa — causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment… With inputs by Abhijit Banare and Kriti
Bulimia: Get Facts on the Treatment of Bulimia Nervosa

Bulimia is an eating disorder. Someone with bulimia might binge on food and then vomit (also called purge). Get the facts on treatment, side effects, and statistics.

Depression Test Online Prompts the Depressed for Early Diagnosis and Treatment

Depression is frequently referred to as the “common cold” of mental health that is a testimony of its prevalence. According to the National Institute of Mental Health, one out of every ten Americans experience a depressive disorder at any given time which means that it strikes millions of people each year. Interestingly, depression also has a high cure rate but only with effort. Many have gone the tragic way when an easier route is at their disposal if they only know it. It is really a relief that depression test online have been made accessible to people to do self-help when they think there is that slightest possibility. It is not a form of treatment nor is it the answer to depression but it attempts to form at least a suspicion so that the necessary course of action can be taken.depression test online free

Feeling down and speaking of depression is actually very common. Everyone spoke of it and felt it more than once in their lives. Unpleasant as the feelings and the thoughts are, most just pass like many other unwanted feelings and events in people’s lives. When there are good reasons for feeling miserable – falling seriously ill or passing away of a loved one, loss of job, failing in an exam, or being bullied in school – it is normal to feel down. When the bad emotions and thoughts, however, persist longer than necessary, one must start getting anxious about the setting of a psychological condition called depression. Using the online depression test is a good way to find out for oneself. This helps especially if one does not want others to know right away or does not want to spend unless the need for professional help becomes vital.

This depression test online does not constitute a treatment nor is it diagnostic if done and interpreted without the guidance of a mental health provider. It can, however, help one make certain discoveries about the manifestations to be able to form a suspicion. Once suspicion is formed, there is a good chance that the condition will be cured. This is because efforts can be channeled towards its treatment and management. Staying ignorant or denying its possibility will not help at all. It takes courage, optimism and determination to get better and to be able to get out of this sticky situation. It sounds too easy, right? But, when one thinks that these are exactly what depress people lack, it makes overcoming depression like an uphill climb.

Through all of these, it helps to have concerned people around to serve as a support system that can provide courage, optimism and determination that one needs. It also helps to learn about the condition to be able to battle it quite well. For teenage depression, it is most important that parents and teachers help create an understanding environment that promotes positive energy and fosters motivation to aim for a better life. But more importantly, a medical and psychological treatment program must be created and adopted to make cure possible.

Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale

Diagnostic classification and rating scales used in psychiatry Depression TestOnline version of test Zung, WW (1965). “A self-rating depression scale”

While treatments and understanding of the condition are important, for long-term recovery from depression, addressing the underlying relationship causes of depression is equally important. This means that it is not enough to correct chemical imbalance and depressive thoughts, it is also crucial to heal the relationship environment to prevent relapse. Despite the best efforts to cure the condition, if the personal relationships in one’s home, school, and workplace remain problematic and traumatic, relapse is always a possibility.

Depression does not only impede a sufferer from achieving one’s full potential, it can also make one lose time that is irreplaceable. It is not just a condition that makes one feel weak or angry all the time; it can zap the energy out of the body and life. Depression does not only make one’s life stand still for a while, it can stop the clock from ticking being one of the biggest killers of this generation. Hence, it is a big deal that depression be treated the soonest time possible. Indeed, the depression test online is such a good prompter for all those out there who might be suffering and for those with a loved one who needs the help.

 

Recommended Reading

Psych Central – Depression Screening Test

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Goldberg’s depression test – Are you depressed? – NetDoctor.co.uk

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Depression Test Online: Are They Accurate?

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Major Depression Test – Taking the Time to Find Out if you’re Clinically Depressed or Not

Diagnosing major depression is always a challenge for many psychiatrists because there is no definitive major depression test that determines whether a person really has it or not. Since sadness and hopelessness are normal reactions to unfortunate situations (for example break-ups or death of a family member), the main struggle for doctors is determining which symptoms are appropriate for the circumstance and which are pathologic and require medical intervention. There are dozens of non-definitive tests available to suspected sufferers of major depression. Although they may not always characterize a person’s depressive state consistently, any kind of major depression test is valuable in exploring the emotional state of an individual who’s been feeling blue for quite a while.

Any kind of major depression assessment tool is usually performed in a formal manner by a licensed psychologist or psychiatrist, although the actual administration of the test may sometimes be carried out by a psychology intern or trainee studying to become a professional psychologist. Depending on what kind of major depression test is being done, it can last anywhere from a few minutes to several hours. The examination is usually done in a psychologist’s or psychiatrist’s office and consists mainly of paper-and-pencil tests. Here are some of the most widely-used tests for determining the presence and severity of depression.

* Goldberg Depression Scale

Created by the American psychiatrist, Ivan K. Goldberg, the Goldberg Depression Scale is a multiple choice type of test that consists of 18 questions, each of which is answered by the individual using a sliding scale of responses based on how they felt during the previous week.

The Goldberg questionnaire asks an individual to select how often he or she can relate to statements such as “My future appears hopeless”, “I do things slowly”, “I have lost interest in things that used to be important to me”, or “I spend time thinking how I can commit suicide.” Answering all of the questions creates a score — 54 and above is indicative of severe depression, 36 to 53 is suggestive of moderate to severe depression, 22 to 35 means mild-moderate depression, 18 to 21 is suggestive of borderline depression, 10 to 17 is indicative of possible mild depression, and 0 to 9 means depression is unlikely.

* Wakefield Questionnaire for Depression

When it comes to depression tests, one of the most commonly used and well-accepted of versions must be the Wakefield Questionnaire. Emerging from a research at the University of Leeds, this 12-question self-evaluative major depression test is a good way to assess an individual’s mental health The questionnaire contains twelve statements, in which respondents must carefully read each statement and then encircle the number that best describes how they are feeling “at present”, not how they have felt in the past or might possibly feel in future.

A score of 15 and above is means that you may be suffering from clinical depression and should seek professional help. In many instances, those who do not obtain high score on the test are nonetheless still suffering from symptoms of depression. In such cases, it may be advised to retake the test after a week or two.

* Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10)

The K10 scale is a widely recommended test of psychological distress. It is a popular tool used to monitor progress following treatment for common psychological health disorders such as anxiety and depression. The K10 scale is based on 10 questions about negative emotional states experienced in the past four weeks. For each item, there is a five-level response scale based on the amount of time the respondent reports experiencing the particular problem. The options include: all of the time (5 pts.), most of the time (4 pts.), some of the time (3 pts.), a little of the time (2 pts.), and none of the time (1 pt.). After answering the questionnaire, the scores are totaled, yielding a minimum score of 10 and a maximum score of 50. The higher the score, the higher the level of psychological distress is.

* Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (Self-Report)

The Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (Self-Report) or QIDS-SR test is an effective way of identifying a patient’s level of depression before, during, and after therapy. Developed at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical, this self-test measures 16 factors across 9 different criterion domains for major depression. A score of 0 to 5 means no depression, 6 to 10 means possibly mild depression, 11 to 15 indicates moderate depression, 16 to 20 indicates severe depression, while a score of above 20 means very severe depression.

Psychological tests such as these are the foundation of how psychologists and psychiatrists better understand a person’s attitude and behavior. If you think that you might be suffering from excessive sadness, don’t hesitate to take a major depression test. Your doctor will make sure that everything remains confidential and that you will be given proper treatment as needed.

Resources:

Depression Test – About.com

Q. Am I depressed? A. A good way to answer this question is to take our depression test. It’s free and completely confidential.

Depression Tests — Blood Tests, Screening, and Other Tests – WebMD

Learn what to expect if you see your doctor for symptoms of depression. Find out which tests and tools may be used to diagnose your condition.