Kidney Disease: Types Of Kidney Diseases, Cause & Symptoms

Kidneys are described as two bean-looking vital organs which form a section of the urinary tract. People have all types of kidney diseases for a variety of reasons. Kidney damage is a result of kidney disease because it causes the kidney to deteriorate and they are unable to function over time.

How the Kidney Functions?

It is essential to note that the kidney is one of the body’s important organs to ensure that your overall health is in optimal shape.
Some of the functions of the kidney include:
The filtering of waste material and surplus water found in the blood. These are excreted from the body via the bladder, urethra and ureters as urine
Renin is produced by the kidneys. This is a hormone that regulates your blood pressure
Vitamin D is produced via the kidneys
The kidney regulated electrolytes and other important substances like calcium, sodium and calcium
The kidney regulates the fluid quality in your body
It stimulates the production of red blood cells

Serious Kidney Diseases

There are kidney diseases that are serious, but then there are those that are not. However, the most serious and life threatening types of kidney diseases are acute renal failure and chronic kidney disease.

The acute renal failure is very detrimental to one’s health. It will deteriorate the kidney in no time and damage the functioning of the kidney, which will eventually result in ultimate death. The conditions that cause acute renal failure are:
Obstruction of the urinary tract
Acute pyelonephritis
Ingesting specific toxic substances

Chronic kidney disease also deteriorates and damages the functioning of the kidney, but this happens over a longer period of time; up to several years. So you can live with it, but your lifestyle will be filled with pain, a lot of doctor’s visits and so much discomfort. The conditions that cause chronic kidney disease is:
High Blood Pressure


Some of the general symptoms related to kidney disease include:
Urine discoloration
Difficulty in urinating
Skin that is dry and itchy
Bruising easily
Bad smelling urine
Urinating frequently
Cramping of the muscles
Dysuria (feeling pain during urination)
Ankles or feet will swell
Urgently urinating
Lack of appetite

Serious and life threatening symptoms include:
Blood in the urine
Blood in the stool
Black stool
Feeling disoriented and confused
Not urinating
Abdominal pain
High fever
Severe breathing difficulty


The types of kidney diseases that one can encounter make it almost impossible for the kidney to function normally. Your life can be threatened because of this.

It is important that proper and fast diagnosis of kidney disease takes place as well as the appropriate treatment. If not, then the problem will escalate to chronic or renal kidney failure.


There are different kinds of treatment for different types of kidney diseases. It depends on what the underlying problem is. Treatment is necessary, however, to minimize the complications. The basic treatment is:
Eating a diet with low salt, less protein and limited fluids
Maintaining and controlling your blood pressure
Quit smoking
Frequent doctor’s visits
Promptly treat bladder infections
Appropriate weight loss is necessary
Diuretic medicine

In advanced cases of kidney disease, dialysis may be necessary to prevent kidney failure.

What Causes Kidney Disease?

Kidney disease can result from a wide range of other diseases, conditions and disorders. Some of what causes kidney diseases can include:
Ingesting toxic substances
A decrease in blood supply to the kidneys
Obstruction to the kidneys

Some of the underlying conditions that cause kidney disease include:

Diabetic tendency, which can result in gradual damage to the kidney over a period of time
Inflammatory diseases
Nephritis that results in kidney damage
High blood pressure
Repetitive bladder infections
Drug abuse intravenously
Infection of the blood
Infection of the kidney
Cancer of the kidney
Using certain medicines over a long period of time
Drug overdose
Using too many inflammatory drugs such as Advil, Motrin and Aleve
Inherited from family genetics


Kidney diseases that are inherited tend to have symptoms such as a large cyst growing on the kidneys that will eventually damage the tissues. This type of kidney disease is polycystic and what causes kidney disease of this kind is something that no one can fathom or avoid.

If you have a decrease in blood flow to the kidney because of shock or tightening of the renal arteries, it will result in damage to the organ.

In situations where the body tends to attack healthy tissues and cells or if you have an autoimmune disease attacking the kidneys, you run the risk of kidney failure.

If the kidneys suffer injury or any type of trauma to the arteries, this is also bad for your kidneys

If your urinary tract is obstructed, it will contribute to what causes kidney diseases. However, it will also cause you to have kidney stones, tumors and an engorged prostate gland.

The Risk Factors Involved

Kidney disease is risky and it affects individuals of all ages, gender, culture and race. However, there are a variety of factors that helps to increase your risk such as:
If you are more than 65 years of age
It affects certain racial makeup such as Black Americans, Hispanics, Pacific Islanders and Native Americans
If you have diabetes
If your family history consists of kidney disease
If you have heart disease
High cholesterol
Disease of the artery
Plaque buildup in the artery

How to Reduce the Risk

There are many people who have the risk of being a candidate of kidney disease, but they may not develop it at all. With that being said, the risk can be lowered by:
Contacting a licensed physician with proper inflammatory drug recommendations
Quit smoking
Upholding your weight
Do not use recreational or intravenous drugs
Make sure you get frequent medical attention

It is very important to stick to your treatment plan whenever you have a chronic disease such as kidney disease.

Diagnosis and Treatment

It is important to be quickly diagnosed for what causes kidney disease in order to get the right treatment. So ensuring that you have the right physician is important in identifying and treating the symptoms, which include high blood pressure, heart disease, high cholesterol, diabetes and obesity.

Symptoms of Kidney Disease

Chronic kidney disease carries with it various symptoms and causes. People who suffer from kidney disease lead a very frustrating and challenging lifestyle that includes many trips to the doctor, watching their diet and living a restricted life. However, this is essential in order to limit the symptoms of kidney disease and remain healthy.

The Causes

The main cause of chronic kidney disease is generally due to diabetes and hypertension. If you have type 1 or type 2 diabetes, you run the risk of having symptoms of kidney disease. Diabetes can eventually turn into diabetic nephropathy, which is the number one cause of kidney disease in the nation. If you suffer from hypertension, you have to know how to control it because over time, it can cause damage to your kidneys.

If the filtration system that goes to your kidney is damaged, it will cause inflammation and subsequently kidney failure. Lupus and other infectious conditions result in inflammation as well.

The Symptoms and Treatment

Once you find out the symptoms of kidney disease, it is best to put together the right diet with your doctor. In a lot of cases, the symptoms are evident. Some of the symptoms will ultimately make you experience shortness of breath, fatigue at all times as well as becoming weak and confused. If you cannot remove potassium from your bloodstream, this can cause unusual heart rhythms and finally death. At first you may not see any symptoms of kidney failure, but over time, it gets gradually worse.

You must manage your disease as well as symptoms of kidney disease. If you don’t, then you run the risk of renal failure. Do not rely on self-treatment. You must meet with your doctor for treatment.

The Effects

Some of the effects of chronic kidney disease are:

The urgent need to urinate; usually during the night
Swelling of the feet caused by fluid retention
High blood pressure
Easy skin bruising
Accumulating fluid in the lungs
Nausea and vomiting
Losing your appetite
Constant headaches
Numbness in hands and feet
Reduced blood clotting
Pain in the bones
Pain in the chest
Erectile dysfunction

The Diagnosis of Chronic Kidney Disease

In the initial stages of chronic kidney disease typically doesn’t have any symptoms. Doctors will perform lab tests to find out how bad it is and if there are any other symptoms of kidney disease. If you are at risk, you should definitely do routine tests.

Doctors will:
Test the urine and the blood
Conduct extensive X-rays

However, many of these tests provide limited information and may be inconclusive, but doctors use them to create a picture of the extent of the disease. Most tests are performed in the doctor’s office. Patients do not have to go to the hospital.

Urinalysis (urine test) is done to analyze the urine to find out more. The dipstick test is the first option, which checks the urine to see if there are any abnormal or normal elements such as too much protein. The doctor will examine the urine using a microscope to see if there are any red or white blood cells, casts and solids present.

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